## THE REALITY, NOW AND UNDERSTANDING

### CHAPTER6.TXT: PSR 1913 + 16

#### 1.0 INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this chapter is to study the behaviour of binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16

This chapter is based on the following books and articles (See LITERAT.TXT )
1. Literature 7 page 236 and 237
2. Literature 46 in Nature
3. Literature 47 and Literature 48 both in Scientific American

#### 2.0 DESCRIPTION

The binary pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 consists of 2 neutron stars. One neutron star m0 is called silent or invisible. The other neutron star m1 is visible as a pulsar.

From article 2 we known that the masses are respectively:

m0 = 1.442 * M0
m1 = 1.386 * M0 M0 is the mass of the Sun or 2 * 10^30 kg

Article 1 shows:
1. That the movement of both neutron stars is highly eccentric.
2. That the revolution time is approximate 8 hours or 28800 seconds
3. That the longest distance of the 2 stars is 4 times the shortest distance. This results in an eccentricity of 0.6

Item 2 requires a longest distance of 304000 km and a shortest distance of 76000. Average distance is (304000 + 76000) / 2 = 190000 km

To observe the behaviour of the binary pulsar perform the program: MERCURY.TXT 9.1 TEST 7

The simulation gives the impression that only one neutron star m1 moves eccentric. In reality both move eccentric. What the simulation shows is the movement of m1 relative to m0. m0 is considered fixed.

Most probably the binary pulsar moves in space. The two parameters which describe this motion are v and phi. Phi is the angle of this motion. v is the speed of this motion

#### 2.1 PHI

The first parameter to modify is phi

Perform the program: MERCURY.TXT 9.2 TEST 7

What the simulation shows that for phi is 180 the forward movement of the aphelion is the greatest. For phi is 0 the movement is also the greatest, but backwards. For phi is 90 and 270 degrees there is no movement.

In all cases the distance between the two neutron stars increases after each revolution.

#### 2.2 V

The second parameter to modify is the speed v

Perform the program: MERCURY.TXT 9.3 TEST 7

The simulation shows that the forward movement is linear with the speed v

In all cases the distance between the two neutron stars increases after each revolution.

#### 2.3 SPEED OF GRAVITY C

The third parameter to modify is the speed of gravity propagation c.

The following values are tested:

```        300.000.000,   30.000.000, 3.000.000 and 300.000 km/sec
```

Perform the program: MERCURY.TXT 9.4 TEST 7

The results of the simulation show that at a speed c of 300.000 km/sec the distance after each revolution and the forward movement increases the most. The results show that at a speed c of 300.000.000 km/sec the distance after each revolution and the forward movement increases the least. The difference in each case is a factor 10.

The simulation was done at a speed v of 1000 km/sec At a speed v of 100 km/sec the forward movement would be a factor 10 smaller, but the distance after each revolution would be the same.

#### 2.4 MASS

The fourth parameter to modify is the mass of the neutron stars. Three conditions are tested:

When the mass of m0 is increased or decreased
When the mass of m1 is increased or decreased
When the mass of both are increased or decreased

Perform the program MERCURY.TXT 9.5 TEST 7

The results of the simulation show in both cases that when the mass is increased or decreased the forward movement increases. When the mass is increased with a factor 10 the forward movement increases with a factor of 100. When the mass is decreased this is the same. This behaviour is quadratic.

For the distance this is not the case. When the mass is increased the distance after each revolution decreases i.e. the two neutron stars are becoming closer. When the mass is decreased this is the opposite and the two neutron stars move further apart. This behaviour is linear.

#### 2.5 OBLATENESS

The fifth parameter to study is the oblateness or roundness of the neutron stars.

Perform the program: MERCURY.TXT 9.6 TEST 7 OBLATENESS

The results of the simulation show that oblateness and forward movement are linear. The forward movement is large compared with the value of the oblateness

#### 2.6 OTHER PLANETS

The last parameter to study is to include additional planets which could circumnavigate both neutron stars.
The reason why this is done is because the Pulsar PSR B1257 + 12 has at least three planets around its orbit with two of the size approximate three times the Earth

Perform the program: MERCURY.TXT 9.7 TEST 7

The results of the simulation show the more massive planets are included the more the forward movement is.

#### 2.7 CONCLUSION

Accordingly to Literature 7 the pulsar shows two types of behaviour which are in agreement with the relativity theory and prove that the relativity theory is correct: First the pulsar has a forward movement of 4 degrees per year with is equal to 4 * 100 * 3600 arc sec per century. Second the distance between the two neutron stars becomes shorter. In four years the total decrease in revolution time is 1 second. The reason is because the pulsar loses energy (mass).

As explained above (2.0) both neutron stars have the same mass and the same behaviour i.e. both move eccentric. That means that if the relativity explains something for one neutron star it should explain the same behaviour for the other neutron star.

If the pulsar loses energy and if that is explained by the relativity theory then both stars should loose energy with almost the same amount. Literature 7 does not mention this.

It could be possible that the relativity theory explains this loosing of mass but then:

All stars with the same speed should behave the same.
There should not be any other reason which explains this.
Or if there two reasons then for each reason it should be clear for
how much loss in mass each is responsible.

In paragraph 2.4 the distance becomes shorter only when there is an increase in mass and not when there is a decrease in mass (i.e. loss of energy).

In paragraph 2.4 also simulations are discussed where one neutron star transfers mass to the other star. Those simulations are not correct. Real simulations are much more complex. When one star losses mass in a constant rate (uniform) the other stars collects this mass non-uniform (as a function of distance and speed and direction in space). This is not taken into account.

Accordingly to the simulations one of the most important parameters to influence the behaviour is the oblateness. A neutron star is a collapsed star. When the star was rotating before, this rotation is main- tained and is amplified. That means the neutron star starts to rotate very quickly. Again both neutron should start to rotate very quickly ? Why one becomes visible as a pulsar and the other one not I don't know. I expect that the reason is that both stars did not collapse at the same time and that there must have been a period that there only was one star and one neutron star. How this difference influences its behaviour is not known. On the other hand I expect that the neutron stars, at least the pulsar, are not round. Literature 7 does not mention this.

To explain the forward movement of 4 degrees an oblateness of approximate 0.0003 is enough. This is very small.

Literature 46 gives the most accurate information about the masses of the two neutron stars. (Those values are used in the simulation). The article does not mention if the masses are constant.

In paragraph 2.2 where the speed v is studied it is mentioned that in all cases the difference between the two stars increases. For Mercury and the Sun this is not the case. The reason is not known.

In New Scientist of 26 November 1994 the following is stated: Joseph Taylor and Russell Hulse won a Noble prize for the discovery of a pair of neutron stars near Vega that are spiralling inward at precisely the rate expected if they were emitting gravitational waves.

Unfortunate no more detail information is available based on observations.

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